Languages – IELTS Speaking


Hi everyone.

Today’s speaking exercise is in the Part 2 (Long Turn) format.

Speak for 1-2 minutes on the following topic:

Describe a language that you would like to learn.  You should include:

  • What it is and how you plan to learn it
  • Where it is spoken
  • How it will help you

In the IELTS exam you will have one minute of preparation time, and you will be permitted to make notes.




Languages – IELTS Writing


Hi everyone.

This week’s writing exercise will be a Task 1 exercise using a 4-line graph.

Your essay structure should be an introduction that paraphrases the question followed by an overview of the data.  I then suggest two paragraphs looking at two aspects of the graph in more detail, which means looking for a logical way to divide the information presented.

The graph shows the number of Swiss native speakers of four different languages, from 1960 to 2010.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

lnaguage graph image



As always, feedback and comments are welcome.

Good Luck!



Languages – IELTS Reading


Hi everyone.

This week our Reading exercise will use the matching headings format.  This is a good practice of paraphrasing skills, as the headings often do not match directly with keywords from the passage.

Our reading this week is an essay by Philip Durkin, Principal Etymologist at the Oxford English Dictionary, discussing five events that shaped the English Language.

The passage has eight paragraphs labelled A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

  1. The standardisation of English
  2. The emergence of written English
  3. Celtic influences on English
  4. The colonization and globalization of English
  5. The significance of the Anglo-Saxon settlement
  6. The influence of Scandinavian settlement


It’s never easy to pinpoint exactly when a specific language began, but in the case of English we can at least say that there is little sense in speaking of the English language as a separate entity before the Anglo-Saxons came to Britain. Little is known of this period with any certainty, but we do know that Germanic invaders came and settled in Britain from the north-western coastline of continental Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries.
The invaders all spoke a language that was Germanic (related to what emerged as Dutch, Frisian, German and the Scandinavian languages, and to Gothic), but we’ll probably never know how different their speech was from that of their continental neighbours. However it is fairly certain that many of the settlers would have spoken in exactly the same way as some of their north European neighbours, and that not all of the settlers would have spoken in the same way.

The reason that we know so little about the linguistic situation in this period is because we do not have much in the way of written records from any of the Germanic languages of north-western Europe until several centuries later. When Old English writings begin to appear in the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries there is a good deal of regional variation, but not substantially more than that found in later periods. This was the language that Alfred the Great referred to as ‘English’ in the ninth century.

The Celts were already resident in Britain when the Anglo-Saxons arrived, but there are few obvious traces of their language in English today. Some scholars have suggested that the Celtic tongue might have had an underlying influence on the grammatical development of English, particularly in some parts of the country, but this is highly speculative. The number of loanwords known for certain to have entered Old English from this source is very small. Those that survive in modern English include brock (badger), and coomb a type of valley, alongside many place names.


The next invaders were the Norsemen. From the middle of the ninth century large numbers of Norse invaders settled in Britain, particularly in northern and eastern areas, and in the eleventh century the whole of England had a Danish king, Canute. The distinct North Germanic speech of the Norsemen had great influence on English, most obviously seen in the words that English has borrowed from this source. These include some very basic words such as take and even grammatical words such as they. The common Germanic base of the two languages meant that there were still many similarities between Old English and the language of the invaders. Some words, for example give, perhaps show a kind of hybridization with some spellings going back to Old English and others being Norse in origin. However, the resemblances between the two languages are so great that in many cases it is impossible to be sure of the exact ancestry of a particular word or spelling. However, much of the influence of Norse, including the vast majority of the loanwords, does not appear in written English until after the next great historical and cultural upheaval, the Norman Conquest.


The centuries after the Norman Conquest witnessed enormous changes in the English language. In the course of what is called the Middle English period, the fairly rich inflectional system of Old English broke down. It was replaced by what is broadly speaking, the same system English has today, which unlike Old English makes very little use of distinctive word endings in the grammar of the language. The vocabulary of English also changed enormously, with tremendous numbers of borrowings from French and Latin, in addition to the Scandinavian loanwords already mentioned, which were slowly starting to appear in the written language. Old English, like German today, showed a tendency to find native equivalents for foreign words and phrases (although both Old English and modern German show plenty of loanwords), whereas Middle English acquired the habit that modern English retains today of readily accommodating foreign words. Trilingualism in English, French, and Latin was common in the worlds of business and the professions, with words crossing over from one language to another with ease. You only have to flick through the etymologies of any English dictionary to get an impression of the huge number of words entering English from French and Latin during the later medieval period. This trend was set to continue into the early modern period with the explosion of interest in the writings of the ancient world.


The late medieval and early modern periods saw a fairly steady process of standardization in English south of the Scottish border. The written and spoken language of London continued to evolve and gradually began to have a greater influence in the country at large. For most of the Middle English period a dialect was simply what was spoken in a particular area, which would normally be more or less represented in writing – although where and from whom the writer had learnt how to write were also important. It was only when the broadly London standard began to dominate, especially through the new technology of printing, that the other regional varieties of the language began to be seen as different in kind. As the London standard became used more widely, especially in more formal contexts and particularly amongst the more elevated members of society, the other regional varieties came to be stigmatized, as lacking social prestige and indicating a lack of education.

In the same period a series of changes also occurred in English pronunciation (though not uniformly in all dialects), which go under the collective name of the Great Vowel Shift. These were purely linguistic ‘sound changes’ which occur in every language in every period of history. The changes in pronunciation weren’t the result of specific social or historical factors, but social and historical factors would have helped to spread the results of the changes. As a result the so-called ‘pure’ vowel sounds which still characterize many continental languages were lost to English. The phonetic pairings of most long and short vowel sounds were also lost, which gave rise to many of the oddities of English pronunciation, and which now obscure the relationships between many English words and their foreign counterparts.


During the medieval and early modern periods the influence of English spread throughout the British Isles, and from the early seventeenth century onwards its influence began to be felt throughout the world. The complex processes of exploration, colonization and overseas trade that characterized Britain’s external relations for several centuries led to significant change in English. Words were absorbed from all over the world, often via the languages of other trading and imperial nations such as Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands. At the same time, new varieties of English emerged, each with their own nuances of vocabulary and grammar and their own distinct pronunciations. More recently still, English has become a lingua franca, a global language, regularly used and understood by many nations for whom English is not their first language. The eventual effects on the English language of both of these developments can only be guessed at today, but there can be little doubt that they will be as important as anything that has happened to English in the past sixteen hundred years.





Languages – IELTS Vocabulary


Hi everyone.

There is some specialised vocabulary around our topic of languages.

In order to help you become familiar with some of the terms that you will encounter during the exercises this week I have prepared a vocabulary exercise set.

There are 25 words to review, and you can see them here.






Hi everyone.

Our theme for this week’s IELTS exercises will be languages.

Tuesday’s reading exercise will be based on the Matching Information format, often a chance to score well and so an important format to practice.  There will also be some language-related vocabulary exercises to help you prepare for the reading.

Wednesday’s writing exercise will be a Task 1 exercise using a four-line bar chart, along with some suggestions on how to approach this type of task.

Thursday’s listening exercise will be a recording of me reading another article related to language.  You will be asked to write short answers.

Friday’s speaking exercise will be a Part 2 exercise using a language-related topic that appeared on a recent IELTS paper

If you have registered with The IELTS Guy, you will receive suggested answers by email over the weekend.

If you have subscribed to The IELTS Guy, you will receive personalized feedback on your responses.

As always, feedback and comments are welcome.

Good Luck!



Environment – IELTS Listening

Hi everyone.

Today we will have a break from exercises, and take the opportunity to put some of the vocabulary we have studied this week into practice.

The link below is to a TED Talk delivered by a climate scientist Dr James Hansen and explaning his involvement in the science of and debate over global climate change.

Dr Hansen speaks in a clear, measured fashion that makes him easy to understand.  Please watch the following video (it runs for just over 17 minutes) and try to follow the dialogue as closely as possible.




As always, feedback and comments are welcome.

Good Luck!


Environment – IELTS Speaking

Hi everyone.

Today we will look at Speaking Part 1.

Below is a list of questions that are related to our theme of the environment. Do not review these questions until you are ready to begin, as it is important that you should practice responding to questions without any preparation.

Subscibers to The IELTS Guy will be submitting their response for review, so have a recording device ready to use.

Once you are ready, begin recording and read out the first question below, and then provide your response, as though you are interviewing yourself. Continue through to the end of the questions (there are 11 in total).

OK, so let’s begin.

Today I would like to ask you some questions related to the environment.

What is the climate like in your country?

Are there any problems with the climate in your country?

What is your favourite type of weather?

What kind of weather do you dislike?

Would you prefer to live in a hot or cold country?

What is the best/worst weather for travelling in?

What is the best/worst weather for travelling in?

Do you or your family take steps to help the environment?

Do you take an interest in nature?

Are there any environmental problems in your country?

As always, feedback and comments are welcome.

Good Luck!